Skip to content

Next.js shield reference

Arcjet Shield protects your application against common attacks, including the OWASP Top 10.

Configuration

Shield is configured by specifying which mode you want it to run in.

The configuration definition is:

type ShieldOptions = {
mode?: "LIVE" | "DRY_RUN";
};

The arcjet client is configured with one or more shield rules which take one or many ShieldOptions.

Per route

This configures shield on a single route.

/app/api/arcjet/route.ts
import arcjet, { shield } from "@arcjet/next";
import { NextResponse } from "next/server";
const aj = arcjet({
key: process.env.ARCJET_KEY,
rules: [
shield({
mode: "LIVE",
}),
],
});
export async function GET(req: Request) {
const decision = await aj.protect(req);
if (decision.isDenied() && decision.reason.isShield()) {
return NextResponse.json(
{
error: "You are suspicious!",
// Useful for debugging, but don't return it to the client in
// production
//reason: decision.reason,
},
{ status: 403 },
);
}
return NextResponse.json({
message: "Hello world",
});
}

Middleware

This will run on every request to your Next.js app, except for static assets (configured in the matcher - see the Next.js docs for details).

Create a file called middleware.ts in your project root (at the same level as pages or app or inside src):

/middleware.ts
import arcjet, { createMiddleware, shield } from "@arcjet/next";
export const config = {
// matcher tells Next.js which routes to run the middleware on.
// This runs the middleware on all routes except for static assets.
matcher: ["/((?!_next/static|_next/image|favicon.ico).*)"],
};
const aj = arcjet({
key: process.env.ARCJET_KEY!, // Get your site key from https://app.arcjet.com
rules: [
// Protect against common attacks with Arcjet Shield
shield({
mode: "LIVE", // will block requests. Use "DRY_RUN" to log only
}),
],
});
// Pass any existing middleware with the optional existingMiddleware prop
export default createMiddleware(aj);

Avoiding double protection with middleware

If you use Arcjet in middleware and individual routes, you need to be careful that Arcjet is not running multiple times per request. This can be avoided by excluding the API route from the middleware matcher.

For example, if you already have a shield rule defined in the API route at /api/hello, you can exclude it from the middleware by specifying a matcher in /middleware.ts:

/middleware.ts
import arcjet, { createMiddleware, shield } from "@arcjet/next";
export const config = {
// The matcher prevents the middleware executing on static assets and the
// /api/hello API route because you already installed Arcjet directly
matcher: ["/((?!_next/static|_next/image|favicon.ico|api/hello).*)"],
};
const aj = arcjet({
key: process.env.ARCJET_KEY,
rules: [
shield({
mode: "LIVE",
}),
],
});
// Pass any existing middleware with the optional existingMiddleware prop
export default createMiddleware(aj);

Decision

The quick start example will deny requests that are determined to be suspicious, immediately returning a response to the client using Next.js middleware.

Arcjet also provides a single protect function that is used to execute your protection rules. This requires a request argument which is the request context as passed to the request handler.

This function returns a Promise that resolves to an ArcjetDecision object. This contains the following properties:

  • id (string) - The unique ID for the request. This can be used to look up the request in the Arcjet dashboard. It is prefixed with req_ for decisions involving the Arcjet cloud API. For decisions taken locally, the prefix is lreq_.
  • conclusion (ArcjetConclusion) - The final conclusion based on evaluating each of the configured rules. If you wish to accept Arcjet’s recommended action based on the configured rules then you can use this property.
  • reason (ArcjetReason) - An object containing more detailed information about the conclusion.
  • results (ArcjetRuleResult[]) - An array of ArcjetRuleResult objects containing the results of each rule that was executed.
  • ip (ArcjetIpDetails) - An object containing Arcjet’s analysis of the client IP address. See IP analysis in the SDK reference for more information.

See the SDK reference for more details about the rule results.

You check if a deny conclusion has been returned by a shield rule by using decision.isDenied() and decision.reason.isShield() respectively.

You can iterate through the results and check whether a shield rule was applied:

for (const result of decision.results) {
console.log("Rule Result", result);
}

This example will log the full result as well as the shield rule:

Create a new API route at /app/api/route/hello.ts:

/app/api/route/hello.ts
import arcjet, { fixedWindow, shield } from "@arcjet/next";
import { NextResponse } from "next/server";
const aj = arcjet({
key: process.env.ARCJET_KEY,
rules: [
fixedWindow({
mode: "LIVE",
// Limiting by ip.src is the default if not specified
//characteristics: ["ip.src"],
window: "1h",
max: 60,
}),
shield({
mode: "LIVE",
}),
],
});
export async function POST(req: Request) {
const decision = await aj.protect(req);
for (const result of decision.results) {
console.log("Rule Result", result);
if (result.reason.isRateLimit()) {
console.log("Rate limit rule", result);
}
if (result.reason.isShield()) {
console.log("Shield rule", result);
}
}
if (decision.isDenied()) {
return NextResponse.json({ error: "Forbidden" }, { status: 403 });
}
return NextResponse.json({
message: "Hello world",
});
}

Error handling

Arcjet is designed to fail open so that a service issue or misconfiguration does not block all requests. The SDK will also time out and fail open after 500ms when NODE_ENV is production and 1000ms otherwise. However, in most cases, the response time will be less than 20-30ms.

If there is an error condition, Arcjet will return an ERROR type and you can check the reason property for more information, like accessing decision.reason.message.

/app/api/hello/route.ts
import arcjet, { shield } from "@arcjet/next";
import { NextResponse } from "next/server";
const aj = arcjet({
key: process.env.ARCJET_KEY,
rules: [
shield({
mode: "LIVE",
}),
],
});
export async function GET(req: Request) {
const decision = await aj.protect(req);
if (decision.isErrored()) {
// Fail open by logging the error and continuing
console.warn("Arcjet error", decision.reason.message);
// You could also fail closed here for very sensitive routes
//return NextResponse.json({ error: "Service unavailable" }, { status: 503 });
}
if (decision.isDenied()) {
return NextResponse.json(
{
error: "You are suspicious!",
// Useful for debugging, but don't return it to the client in
// production
//reason: decision.reason,
},
{
status: 403,
},
);
}
return NextResponse.json({
message: "Hello world",
});
}

Edge Functions

Arcjet works in Edge Functions and with the Edge Runtime.

/app/api/hello/route.ts
import arcjet, { shield } from "@arcjet/next";
import { NextRequest, NextResponse } from "next/server";
export const config = {
runtime: "edge",
};
const aj = arcjet({
key: process.env.ARCJET_KEY,
rules: [
shield({
mode: "LIVE",
}),
],
});
export default async function handler(req: NextRequest, res: NextResponse) {
const decision = await aj.protect(req);
if (decision.isDenied()) {
return NextResponse.json(
{
error: "You are suspicious!",
// Useful for debugging, but don't return it to the client in production
//reason: decision.reason,
},
{
status: 403,
},
);
}
return NextResponse.json({
message: "Hello world",
});
}